May 24, 2014, 8:30AM, Sauraha, Nepal.

The temperature is already 32 degrees Celsius (about 90 degrees Fahrenheit).

Tens of elephants are already hard at work.

Each morning at dawn, seven days a week, elephants are saddled up in preparation for another day of carrying tourists on safaris.

This is the routine the elephants will follow, year in and year out, until they die.

First, they are forced to lower themselves onto their elbows to accept the saddle. This unnatural position causes pain and irreversible damage to their elbows.

Next, a heavy canvas pad and ill-fitting howdah (saddle) are placed on their back. The pad and howdah are each so heavy, it takes two men to lift them, one at a time.

Then, a howdah strap is cinched tightly around their chest, lacerating sensitive flesh in their armpits and cutting the tissue of their breasts.

A second synthetic rope is tied from the back of the saddle under their tail, ripping deep gashes in the flesh around their anus.

The life of the safari elephant.

Safari elephants spend the day carrying tourists — four to six at a time — through the jungle in sweltering heat.

Elephants are poorly suited for this activity. The pad and howdah cause huge blisters that fester into deep abscesses that can take months to heal.

According to a study published in the Journal of Experimental Biology, four hours of exercise in the sun causes overheating and can be fatal. Laboring in direct sunlight, carrying too much weight – pad, saddle and tourists — elephants quickly become overheated.

What does it take to force an elephant to work under such conditions?


Mahouts hit the elephants over the head with heavy sticks, metal knives and axes. The wounds remain infected for weeks.

Bright white scarring can be observed across the forehead of virtually every working elephant in Nepal. The abuse is systematic, accepted by elephant owners, locals and the tourists.

The images haunt me.

I can’t help but wonder: Is this the memory of Nepal tourists want to take home with them? And what will it take for them to see the abuse?







Two years ago, a young captive born elephant broke free from an ancient tradition.

That was Prakriti Kali, the first elephant in Nepal to be released from chains.

Six months later, five more elephants were released from a lifetime in chains.

Mel Kali was the record holder in the herd, having lived in chains for nearly 70 years.

Culture shift continues in Nepal

On April 6th, at 4:30pm, Nepal made history again when all five resident elephants at the government’s Kasara hattisar went chain free!

Six-year-olds Tamor Kali and Himal Gaj were the first to be given their freedom. They wasted no time, finding the best scratching trees and dusting bowl.

Then, a few days later, after all six chain free corrals were completed, Prayan Kali, Laxmi Kali and Khosi Kali dropped the chains of tradition and went free as well.


Watching the elephants shed their chains and adapt to the change so effortlessly is breathtaking.

Young and old alike seem instinctively to know what is happening.

In synchronized movement, they revel in a scratching and dusting ritual. Nearly becoming one with the trees, they exfoliate every inch of their robust body. Even the tender skin behind their ears and under their massive legs get the invigorating treatment.

After the exfoliation is complete they follow up with a full-body dusting. In the most graceful slow motion, they fling trunkfuls of dirt under their bellies, on their backs and everywhere in between. This natural spa experience is essential for maintaining healthy skin.

Chained elephants are denied this opportunity.

Become an elephant

For one minute become an elephant. Close your eyes and step inside their skin. Feel the frustration when denied access to trees for scratching and clean dirt for dusting. Now feel the sensation of scratching every tick bite and itch spot until completely satisfied.

More good news to come

The five elephants in Kasara hattisar are just the beginning. When our project is complete, 63 elephants will enter the ranks of the chain-free.

A huge thank-you goes to Kamal Kunwar, chief conservation officer of Chitwan National Park, the hattisar staff and, of course, all who believe in and support this project.

Five freed. Fifty-eight to go!










March 29

The first two corrals at Kasara hattisar are finally ready.

The air is charged with anticipation.

Rescuing an elephant to sanctuary or releasing them from chains brings the same mix of emotions — anticipation, apprehension and excitement.

Each elephant is a unique individual with a distinct personality. Life’s experiences mold their behavior, shaping them as they mature. Each of them responds differently to different situations.

When I first arrived at the Kasara hattisar, I noticed that young Himal Gaj was resistant to his mahouts. He appeared fearful. An old scar at the base of his trunk indicated a past confrontation.

Watching the mahouts struggle through the morning routine, preparing Himal Gaj for duty, was disconcerting. I wondered how he and the mahouts would respond to going chain-free.

The mahouts were also concerned. They feared for their safety.

As a result, it was decided that Himal Gaj would be released from his tether but would wear loose hobbles until the mahouts felt safe around him.

It was disappointing that Himal Gaj would not immediately be completely free, but the compromise was the first step to his future freedom. If the mahouts fear for their safety, Himal Gaj would be destined for a life in chains.

With time and Compassionate Care Training I hoped Himal Gaj would settle down and become more responsive.

The chains come off

The elephants usually return from their anti-poaching patrol duties around 4pm. Chief Conservation Officer Kamal Kunwar postponed a scheduled meeting so he could be present for this auspicious occasion.

Just before 4pm, the hattisar suba arrived. He’d been out of office for a couple of weeks.  He and Kamal discussed the plan in Nepali. I would soon see that following their brief conversation plans would change dramatically.

The elephants arrived back from the forest. To my surprise and contrary to the plan, Himal Gaj was walked directly into his new chain-free corral. He was not put on loose hobbles. Calmly and confidently, his mahout gave the command tobite (stretch out on his sternum).  Without hesitation or fear, Himal Gaj calmly responded.

I realized that the mahout I’d seen with Himal Gaj the past week was now assisting, rather than riding.

In that moment things became perfectly clear. The mahout to whom Himal Gaj was resistant to this past week was the junior mahout. And now that his main mahout was back from vacation, everything was fine.

Himal Gaj waited patiently as his gear was removed. Then he rose and immediately began dusting, as his friend and senior mahout left the corral.

What a difference a good relationship makes.

Kamal Kunwar’s turn

I did not have time to dwell on the glory of Himal Gaj’s transformation because Tamor Kali was about to enter her chain-free corral for the first time.

Kamal Kunwar was sincerely excited, filming her first chain-free steps like a proud father.

After seeing how well Himal Gaj responded to his mahout, everyone was engaged and relaxed. They gestured at both young elephants free-of-chains with huge smiles on their faces.

Now was the time to stand back and savor the moment. The instant that life changed for two young elephants and their family of mahouts.

The three other elephants stood chained under their shelter watching the scene.

I whispered, “You’re next ladies.”

It will be close to a week before the other corrals are completed. Without a doubt, Khosi Kali, Laxmi Kali and Prayna Kali, who have all been prisoners to chains for decades, will transition seamlessly.

Imagine the joy when they are all chain-free. Heart bursting JOY!

The framework for all six chain-free corrals at the Kasara hattisar is in place.

Support and brace posts are concreted. Gateposts mark the entrance to each new corral.

Heart work

Eyeing the progress of this project, my heart pounds. Here it comes, that joyfully intoxicating feeling cursing through my veins.

My eyes transport the image to my heart. My heart responds, sending a warm glow through my body, filling my eyes with tears. My heart swells with the promise of a better life for these elephants.

In this moment I stand in my personal space of pure peace. I caress it. Breathe it in deeply. I don’t attempt to own it, only experience it, knowing the feeling is a gift meant to be experienced not possessed.

Some people meditate, others run, cycle or climb mountains to connect to that place within where they feel most themselves, most centered, most peaceful.

This is the place of autonomy and personal freedom.

Such activity can literally become an addiction, in the best sense of the word.

Watching the chain-free corrals come to life before my eyes is my addiction. Knowing that my actions help reduce the suffering of captive-held elephants brings me great joy! It is heart work, soul fulfilling work. My meditation.

At times the joy is overwhelming and I just have to cry. Seeing elephants gain even a semblance of autonomy moves me to do more. Knowing that we are able to help bring some peace and freedom to their lives drives me.

I may never know any of these elephants personally. But that is not the point of my work. I am not here to expand my elephant family. I am here to better the lives of these elephant.

They know we are helping them. That is good enough for me.

Construction continues

The next step is to string the wire between support posts and hand-build the topes (post protectors).

Each corral is one full acre in size. It is equipped with six strands of wire equaling nearly one mile of wire per corral.

Ditches will be dug to bury the wires that enable each corral to operate independently.

Last, the steel box that contains and protects the energizer and batteries will be installed and wired to the solar panel that powers the system.

A perfect vantage point

From the open-air raised platform that I have claimed for my new office, I survey the work site. What a gift to witness this miracle unfolding right before my eyes.

A humble thanks to Kamal Kunwar, Chitwan National Park chief conservation officer, the entire hattisar staff, our IBEX fence crew and all of you who have contributed to this worthwhile project.

Together we are improving elephant welfare, showing due respect to these wise, kind and self-aware beings who grace our planet and our lives.


Himal Gaj is a six-year-old captive born elephant. His father is the dominant wild bull in the area. His mother is a wild born, captive resident of the elephant breeding center at Khosor, Chitwan, Nepal.









Himal  Gaj was one of five young elephants trained together at the breeding center several months ago. Until their formal training, they lived with their mothers.

All five elephants were chained from the age of three months. Chaining is the practice all over Asia. Domestic livestock and captive elephants are tied or chained. It is the cheapest way to keep them in one place.









The training technique used with Himal Gaj and the others at the breeding center was a deviation from the traditional pujan, a brutal breaking of spirit. Introduced by a foreign NGO, a mixture of traditional methods was used—including the use of koonkie elephants, negative reinforcement and punishment—combined with positive reinforcement techniques known to be successful with domestic horses.

Unfortunately, once training began, Himal Gaj showed signs of aggression and resistance. He was frightened by the training process and responded poorly to his mahouts. A few months later his training was deemed unsuccessful.

No video, photographic or written records exist to document the daily training process and Himal Gaj’s progress and difficulties.

But it does not take such documentation to see that Himal Gaj is a very insecure individual.

Although Himal Gaj responds well when his mahout is riding, his weakness is responding to commands when his mahout is on the ground.









Himal Gaj is a good example of the importance of sound training techniques, mahout training and follow through.

Captive elephants are not domesticated—they are wild animals living in a captive environment. Even generations born in captivity are not domesticated. The scientific process of breeding selected individuals for specific traits is the process required to create a domestic species. This has never been undertaken with elephants.

In the case of all elephants born at the breeding facility in Khosor, the mothers are wild born living in captivity and the fathers are wild born living in the wild.

Himal Gaj’s mahouts are as gentle as I have seen anywhere. They are patient but frustrated. What the training process failed to do was give them the tools necessary to help Himal Gaj learn.

As a result, all are left feeling like failures. Without intervention, Himal Gaj is doomed to be a dangerous elephant for the remainder of his life.

The good news is that the mahouts and Kamal Kunwar, the chief commanding officer of Chitwan National Park, are receptive to Himal Gaj receiving additional training. His private training course will begin soon.

This is such exciting news. I feared Himal Gaj would remain a lost cause in the minds of the mahouts. But before his chain-free corral is completed Himal Gaj, will be well on his way to understanding what is expected of him and his mahouts will have gained the humane tools to understand and assist him in his training process.

Feb 14, 2014

Hi my dear Tarra,

Happy Birthday! I can hardly believe you are turning 40. It just doesn’t seem possible, does it? I miss you babe, and hope you have a fabulous birthday!

I sure wish we could be together today. But since we can’t, I’m on the other side of the planet helping your cousins. I know you are proud of my work. Heck, you’re the inspiration.

Just thinking about you makes me smile and brings my heart joy. Even though I am unable to see you right now, I appreciate feeling your presence. It is the special gift you’ve always shared with those you love. Our separation is temporary; our bond, forever and unbreakable.

By the way, your chain-free corral idea was a winner. It is such a simple and affordable way to get elephants off chains. You’re a genius! I wish I had thought of that one myself. Until we are reunited, keep sending me your great inspirations. I know you will.



It’s easy to look at an elephant shackled by both front feet to the ground, with open wounds, and blame the mahout.

But I challenge you to learn the facts.

Elephants belong to hotel owners

In Chitwan, Nepal, mahouts do not own elephants. Elephants are the private property of hotel owners, who use them to augment their income by offering elephant back safaris to overnight guests and daytrippers coming to Chitwan in search of fun and adventure.

Elephant back safaris not only provide a bountiful financial benefit for the owner, they are actually the life’s blood of Chitwan.

In Sauraha, Chitwan’s tourist destination, every shopkeeper, restaurant owner, hotel, bar, service provider, wilderness guide, money changer, street vendor and orphanage owe their survival to these elephants. Without elephant safaris, this tourist destination would cease to exist.

Grueling work schedule

All day long, 24/7, mahouts and elephants give safari rides in the community forest.

Mahouts train, feed and ready the elephants for the rides. It is a grueling job for both.  Up at 4:30am, the pair sets out on the long trek to the safari loading area as the rising sun lights up the morning sky.

During what is supposed to be a one-hour lunch and rest period, the elephants instead are taken to a riverfront area where tourists mount them to have their photo taken.

Walking back and forth to the safari ride area, tourist bathing area and home stable, while carrying hundreds of pounds of tourists for hours at a time, takes its toll on elephant and mahout alike.

At dusk, and even into the dark of night, elephants can be seen silhouetted against the sky trudging down the paved roads of Chitwan toward their home stable.

Mahouts: Overworked, underpaid and devalued

Elephant owners know nothing about elephants and rely on the mahouts to keep the elephants alive and working without killing tourists. This is a heavy burden to put on overworked, underpaid and devalued employees.

When mahouts “ask for more,” be it food for themselves or the elephants, they are chastised. Many owners view the mahouts as stupid, uneducated and unmotivated and blame them for the elephant’s unsanitary living conditions and poor health.

Yet mahouts are not provided even the most basic supplies to ensure the health and wellbeing of the elephants in their care. Owners fail to supply nutritious food but blame the mahouts for the elephant’s poor health. Stables are rancid cesspools because no provision is made for waste disposal. Many stables don’t even have a source of fresh water. For this, the mahout is unjustly blamed.

A marginalized community

The truth is that the mahouts are a marginalized community. The custom of treating them as poorly as the elephants is woven into the fabric of society and their living conditions are a mirror image of those of the elephants.

Mahouts learn their trade on the job, from senior mahouts. Their lot in life dictates they do as they are told without question. They hit the elephants because they are taught they must in order to ensure the elephant does not kill them.

Still, this does not excuse how the mahouts mistreat the elephants.

Abuse can be eliminated

Through education and culture shifting, elephant abuse can be eliminated.

Demonizing either owners or mahouts is not the solution.

The first step is understanding why the situation exists and accepting the challenge to help move culture forward.

Owners must be held responsible and mahouts educated.

This will result in improved welfare for the elephants in Chitwan.

How we can help

Developing sustainable assistance programs is essential. Live demonstrations, educational resources such as videos and manuals, translators and hands-on assistance are needed to improve mahout knowledge and understanding of new approaches to elephant care.

This is Elephant Aid International’s mission. By providing bi-annual foot trimming; training mahouts and vet techs in the skill of foot trimming; teaching positive reinforcement training philosophy and techniques; and constructing chain-free corrals, we are laying the foundation for positive change.

EAI doesn’t blame the mahouts. We give them the tools necessary to take better care of their elephants. Click here to sponsor a mahout.

I’m back from Bardia. What an adventure!

It was a 10-hour drive through mountains on rough roads. The 19-year-old driver of our rental truck scared the daylights out of all of us with his speeding, passing trucks on blind curves and nearly missing oncoming vehicles. Oh man — it was a stressful ten hours!

But our foot trimming program was a grand success. We had a fabulous trimming team: Dr. Gairhe; Kiran the vet tech; Hira, Kirti Kali’s phanet (head mahout) from the NTNC hattisar; and I.

Our students included Chantelle, our intern; Surajan, a new friend and translator; and the vet tech from Bardia.

In two short days we trimmed the feet of 24 government and privately owned elephants.

Honestly, the condition of the privately owned elephant’s feet was criminal, similar to the privately owned elephants in Chitwan. Their pads were dry, cracked and severely overgrown. The nails were equally as dry and overgrown and many had splits and deep cracks.

I am always shocked to see how poorly the privately owned elephants are kept, especially since they are the breadwinners for their owners.

The good news is that 24 more elephants received pedicures and their mahouts were introduced to foot care. With time things can change for these over-used, abused and neglected elephants…I hope.

A huge thank-you goes out to the trimming team. Without their enthusiasm and hard work we could not have accomplished our goal to provide foot care for elephants in Bardia!

You can make a difference in the life of a captive elephant by supporting our Foot Trimming Program. Thanks for your help.


The competition between humans and elephants for space and resources has reached an all-time high in India. The problem stems from both species’ dependence on forest resources for survival.

Elephants leave their forest home in search of food. Until villagers are given alternative means to meet their daily needs without depleting forest resources, the problem will continue.

Lacking a well-thought-out plan to combat the problem, the Indian government continues to resort to crisis management. Always a step behind the problem, they have failed in their responsibility to the welfare of marginalized people and wild elephants.

Capturing elephants is an ill-conceived, short-term solution to a long-term problem. Although it is ethically repugnant to some, others have no problem incarcerating wild elephants to a life in chains.  How a people who profess to believe that Ganesh is god can capture and torture his likeness is disturbing.

To avoid a continued escalation of the problem, the government must devise a way to protect the village people, the wild elephants and their forest home.

Potential solutions to these pressing problems need immediate and thoughtful consideration. The future of the forest, wildlife and the villagers who encroach upon the forest are at stake. Ignoring any aspect of the problem will result in failure–a loss for humans and uncertain future for India’s forests and elephants.

Some foreign NGOs recognize the need to relocate villages and open elephant corridors and are pursuing initiatives. But most efforts by local and foreign NGOs to create protected areas for elephants at no expense to the government have, to date, been thwarted.  Government resistance to outsiders bankrolling solutions to the human elephant problem seems counterintuitive and bewildering.


August 13, 2013

Elephants are in the headlines like never before. Every day we are bombarded with news of the brutal slaughter of elephants in their home countries.

Governments and conservation organizations are taking action but the killing continues at an alarming rate. We feel the victims’ pain as if we ourselves were there on the savannas of Africa and in the dense jungles of Asia, hearing the screams of the innocent ones, while we stand by, helpless.

It is that sense of helplessness that is most distressing. To stand witness to such brutality and have no recourse for solution is excruciating.

This is exactly why Elephant Aid International (EAI) serves one world, one elephant at a time. We make our goals reachable, our dreams attainable, so that with each success we are driven to do more.

When our labor bears fruit we are empowered to continue. The work is not easy and the result of each effort not equal but, with your support, we are making a difference for needy elephants.


Chain‐Free Corral Project – Asia Model

We are excited to expand our chain­free corral project to yet another country.

This October, two internationally recognized elephant facilities in Thailand—the Friends of the Asian Elephant, Thailand’s first elephant hospital, and Boon Lott’s Elephant Sanctuary, known worldwide for its outstanding elephant care—will host EAI.

At that time we will determine the size and locations of chain­-free elephant corrals on the premises of both facilities.








The plan is to design the corrals this fall and build them next spring. We will keep you informed of our progress in the coming months. Your support of Thailand’s Chain-­Free Corrals is sincerely appreciated.


Sanctuary Search

It has been reported that due to space restrictions or elephant health status, neither of the two elephant sanctuaries in the U.S. is able to welcome additional elephants at this time. This obviously creates a problem for needy elephants from zoos and circuses who need to be retired or rescued.

Since no sanctuary space is currently available, EAI has decided to search for land to create a new elephant sanctuary. We have identified several possibilities in Florida, Georgia and Alabama.

We are now raising funds to cover the cost to visit and inspect each property on our list. Many of the properties look good on paper but we have to see them in person, walk the land and ask pertinent questions, to determine if one of these properties is suitable for elephants.








If you’d like to be part of this exciting new project literally from the ground up, please donate to our Sanctuary Search Fund. We will keep you posted on our progress.


Mentoring a Dude

Menlo Park Middle School in Northern California, celebrates an annual “Dude, That’s Wrong” program.

Assisted by a mentor, students spend an entire semester researching a topic of their choice. It must be an issue they believe needs action. Not only is the student expected to explore the problem, they must propose possible solutions and present their completed project in front of the entire school.

Sixth grader Silas Stewart chose elephant mistreatment in captivity as his topic and EAI’s Carol Buckley as his mentor.









As result of positive feedback from fellow students, teachers and his parents, Silas wanted to do more. He created an online petition asking the San Diego Zoo to do two things: separate their African and Asian elephants and shut down the exhibit. His hope is that the elephants will be moved to a sanctuary.

To date, Silas’ petition has received 521 signatures and a dozen supportive online comments.


Sophie and Babe

An online group of concerned individuals called Freedom for Sophie and Babe has been working for months raising awareness about two aged elephants living at the Niabi Zoo in Coal Valley, IL.

EAI’s CEO Carol Buckley spoke before members of the Forest Preserve Commission at a public meeting, encouraging them to release and rehome Sophie and Babe together at a sanctuary.

Days after the meeting, a spokesperson for the city stated that both elephants would be moved before winter, but the new home had not yet been determined.


Back to Work

EAI heads back to Asia in September. More elephant pedicures to provide, mahouts to train and chain-­free corrals to build. The word of our work is spreading and your support makes it all possible.

Thank you,

Carol Buckley

Founder and CEO


Our mailing address is:

Elephant Aid International

PO Box 106

4128 Buffalo Road

Hohenwald, TN 38462

PHONE: 931.­796.­1466
Copyright (C) 2012 Elephant Aid International All rights reserved.